A recent paper in Nature Neuroscience is suggesting that Systems Neuroscience has nearly as big of a problem with statistics as the fMRI field used to. The abstract:
In neuroscience, experimental designs in which multiple observations are collected from a single research object (for example, multiple neurons from one animal) are common: 53% of 314 reviewed papers from five renowned journals included this type of data. These so-called ‘nested designs’ yield data that cannot be considered to be independent, and so violate the independency assumption of conventional statistical methods such as the t test. Ignoring this dependency results in a probability of incorrectly concluding that an effect is statistically significant that is far higher (up to 80%) than the nominal α level (usually set at 5%). We discuss the factors affecting the type I error rate and the statistical power in nested data, methods that accommodate dependency between observations and ways to determine the optimal study design when data are nested. Notably, optimization of experimental designs nearly always concerns collection of more truly independent observations, rather than more observations from one research object.
I would write something on this but there’s nothing I would say that Tal Yarkoni hasn’t already:
I don’t have any objection to the advocacy for hierarchical models; that much seems perfectly reasonable. If you have nested data, where each subject (or petrie dish or animal or whatever) provides multiple samples, it’s sensible to try to account for as many systematic sources of variance as you can. That point may have been made many times before, but it never hurts to make it again.
What I do find surprising though–and frankly, have a hard time believing–is the idea that 53% of neuroscience articles are at serious risk of Type I error inflation because they fail to account for nesting. This seems to me to be what the abstract implies, yet it’s a much stronger claim that doesn’t actually follow just from the observation that virtually no studies that have reported nested data have used hierarchical models for analysis. What it also requires is for all of those studies that use “conventional” (i.e., non-hierarchical) analyses to have actively ignored the nesting structure and treated repeated measurements as if they in fact came from entirely different subjects or clusters.