FEINSTEIN: Hey, there’s something else you should know, Johnson. He’s not just with the graduate program. He’s an MD/PhD student.
JOHNSON: his mouth hangs open in rage He’s with the medical school? There’s no way I’m working with him now! We’ve been fighting with them over jurisdiction on this research project for months now. Remember that axon-pathfinding paper we almost had published before it was stolen by those patient-coddlers? We don’t need a future stethoscope-pusher hanging around our lab.
The phone rings, and FEINSTEIN answers it.
FEINSTEIN: Yeah? Really? Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmitter vesicles? All right. I’ve got the perfect guys for the job. [He hangs up phone.]
FEINSTEIN: My inside man over at Nature Neuroscience tells me that those pseudo-scientists over at that Hopkins lab are trying to scoop us on your paper, Johnson. My pal is going to work over their submitted manuscript with some nasty reviews, but I’m going to need you two to get down to your bench and get me some electron microscopy images so we take ’em out.
Ma’s algorithm, for example, predicts that a U.S.-born high school senior with a 3.8 GPA, an SAT score of 2,000 (out of 2,400), moderate leadership credentials, and 800 hours of extracurricular activities, has a 20.4 percent chance of admission to New York University and a 28.1 percent shot at the University of Southern California. Those odds determine the fee ThinkTank charges that student for its guaranteed consulting package: $25,931 to apply to NYU and $18,826 for USC. “Of course we set limits on who we’ll guarantee,” says Ma. “We don’t want to make this a casino game.”
Although they were initially not supposed to, C++ templates are Turing-complete. For proof look at this paper (pdf).
Magic: The Gathering
Magic is a card game. Apparently, the rules are complex enough to reach Turing-completeness.
The venerable mail server is known for its arcane configuration. Turns out the configuration is also turing complete.
The metabolic costs of brain development are thought to explain the evolution of humans’ exceptionally slow and protracted childhood growth; however, the costs of the human brain during development are unknown. We used existing PET and MRI data to calculate brain glucose use from birth to adulthood. We find that the brain’s metabolic requirements peak in childhood, when it uses glucose at a rate equivalent to 66% of the body’s resting metabolism and 43% of the body’s daily energy requirement, and that brain glucose demand relates inversely to body growth from infancy to puberty. Our findings support the hypothesis that the unusually high costs of human brain development require a compensatory slowing of childhood body growth.
Synapses: claymation style
The market was several large city blocks full of 5-10 story buildings with stalls packed into each floor. Each building had a theme or themes ranging from LEDs to cellphone hacking and repair. I realize it’s cliché to say this, but it REALLY felt like blade runner in a way that even Akihabara never did. I think it had a lot to do with the fact that many of vendors were selling to factories so were focused on wholesale and not retail and the volumes were huge and the interfaces were rough.
iPhone home buttons, wifi chipsets, Samsung screens, Nokia motherboards, everything. bunnie pointed to a bag of chips that he said would have a street value of $50,000 in the US selling for about $500. These chips were sold, not individually, but by the pound. Who buys chips by the pound? Small factories that make all of the cellphones that we all buy “new” will often be short on parts and they will run to the market to buy bags of that part so that they can keep the line running. It’s very likely that the “new” phone that you just bought from ATT has “recycled” Shenzhen parts somewhere inside.
This result tells us that neural networks have a kind of universality. No matter what function we want to compute, we know that there is a neural network which can do the job.
What’s more, this universality theorem holds even if we restrict our networks to have just a single layer intermediate between the input and the output neurons – a so-called single hidden layer. So even very simple network architectures can be extremely powerful.
The universality theorem is well known by people who use neural networks. But why it’s true is not so widely understood. Most of the explanations available are quite technical. If you’re a mathematician the argument is not difficult to follow, but it’s not so easy for most people. That’s a pity, since the underlying reasons for universality are simple and beautiful.
Imagine all the possible ways one might get something from high in the air down to the ground. How about a tiny parachute à la The Hunger Games? Roy’s team tried it. There was too much wind interference and they struggled with accuracy. How about literally firing them down, a ballistic approach? “We contemplated this,” Roy said. “And then Sergey walked out from under a balcony and we almost hit him in a drop test.” After that, they moved on.