Imagine this scenario: a sports reporter is asked to cover an emerging conflict in the Middle East. The sports reporter, never particularly keen on international affairs, is on a deadline and looks to see what they can use. There’s in-person video of the central events in question, but our journalist friend doesn’t have the necessary background or context to fully understand what happened. Is there something else? A press release from the US government and from one side of the conflict in the Middle East? Sounds like our sportsman is good to go! Just copy and paste the exciting bits, add in the little bit of context that our intrepid soul already has, and bingo. News has been reported!
Later, it turns out that our poor reporter has been duped! The press release from the Middle East was nothing but PR, empty words of propaganda to make things seem more important and interesting than they really are! Our friend from the sports section sighs, wishing he had asked someone who knew about this kind of thing who would have known what to look out for.
In a similar vein, Vox has an article asking why so many articles on health (and, let’s admit it, science) are junk. The culprit is identified as clearly as in our example above: coverage by those who don’t know, or don’t care. See:
The researchers found that university press offices were a major source of overhype: over one-third of press releases contained either exaggerated claims of causation (when the study itself only suggested correlation), unwarranted implications about animal studies for people, or unfounded health advice.
…When a press release included actual health advice, 58 percent of the related news articles would do so too (even if the actual study did no such thing). When a press release confused correlation with causation, 81 percent of related news articles would. And when press releases made unwarranted inferences about animal studies, 86 percent of the journalistic coverage did, too.
…Unfortunately, however, this isn’t a perfect world. Many journalists are often covering science in the morning, and the courts in the afternoon. We are under heavy pressure to meet multiple deadlines every day, and some of us lack the time, sources, or background to properly vet the studies we’re reporting on.
So we rely on scientists and on press offices to guide us through research, even though, clearly, we shouldn’t.
Wait – what? The problem is the scientists and press offices? Because reporters are too overworked or unqualified to do their job properly? It sounds from the quote above that reporters are just parroting what a press release says without actually reading the source material. It sounds like reporters aren’t doing their jobs. But rather than accept the blame, they are trying to avoid the responsibility.
Unless I am mistaken, the job of a journalist is not to overlay press releases with a thin veneer of impartiality. Their job is to synthesize new information with their existing bank of expertise in order to convey to a naive audience what is or isn’t novel or important. Conversely, the job of a PR department – which derives from the incentive structure – is quite clearly to hype new research. Does anyone think that a press release from a corporation is written to be as truthful as possible, rather than putting as good of a spin on it as possible?
If the reporter knew enough about the field, they would be able to check whether or not the things they were writing were true. Where in the paper does it say this correlation exists? Is there an exaggeration? How much?
If they are unable to do that, what are they doing? Why should I read science or health journalism if they are unable to discern fact from fiction?