I am always a bit jealous by how organized the field of academic economics is when compared to, well, anyone else. To get an academic job, young economists put up their one “job paper” into some sort of database for prospective employers to evaluate (also, they do not do postdocs). This gives them a large dataset to analyze. fivethirtyeight has a nice analysis of what the people looking for an academic economics job are working on (there’s more in the link):
Neuroscience does not have an equivalent database, unfortunately. But I do run the neurorumblr, which aggregates neuroscience faculty job postings. They often break down what type of research they are looking for candidates to accomplish into broad categories. There are currently ~95 job postings: here is what they are looking for.
Also, “cognitive” is the new “psychology”.