Psychohydraulics

psychohydraulic model

On twitter, @mnxmnkmnd pointed me to Lorenz’ model of ‘psychohydraulics‘ as a theory of behavior. Wut?

From a book chapter (I can’t figure out which book):

Lorenz introduced the (artificial) concept of an action-specific energy, ac- cumulating in a tank with a valve. In this model, the level of action-specific energy is raised as a result of the passage of time (if the behavior is not being executed), leading to the eventual opening of the valve, and the flow of action-specific energy into a bucket with several holes on different levels, represent- ing different aspects of the behavior in question. The flow of action-specific behavior into the bucket can also be increased by external factors, represented by weights on a scale, connected to the valve by means of a string. As the energy flows into the bucket, the low-threshold parts of the behavior are im- mediately expressed, and higher-threshold aspects are expressed if the level of energy reaches sufficiently high. Before proceeding with a simple set of equations for this model, one should note that the modern view of motivation is more complex than the simple feedback model just described.

Wut? Here’s some equations, because that makes everything easier to understand:

psychohydraulics

Remember, they’re talking about animal motivation. This is what happens when you win a Nobel prize.

Here is more explanation and digressions.

Vision is for decision

Cholinergic learningWhen we typically think of how decision-making works in the brain, we think of new input coming in, perhaps through the eyes or ears, being processed in the relevant sensory areas, and then sent to the ‘decision-making’ areas (the basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, or anterior cingulate cortex) where this information is used to make a decision.  Although useful and intuitive, this modular view ends up giving short shrift to some areas that do heavy lifting.

Sensory areas are not actually the ruthless calculating machines that we tend to think of, but are in fact quite plastic.  This ability of sensory cortex to modify its own responses allows it to participate in certain decisions: for instance, it can learn how long to wait in order to get a reward.  If a rat receives two visual cues that predict how long it will have to wait in order to receive a reward – either a short time or a long time – neurons in the initial part of visual cortex, V1, will maintain a heightened firing rate to match that duration.

This is accomplished through something like reinforcement learning.  When learning whether a visual cue is giving an animal information about how long it will have to wait for a reward, acetylcholine acts as a ‘reinforcement signal’.  The effect is to change encoding of the reward by modifying the strength of the synapses in the network.

Although we tend to think of certain ‘decision-making’ areas of the brain, in reality all of the brain is participating in every decision at some level or another.  In certain cases – perhaps when speed is of the essence or maybe when you want other areas of the brain to be involved in the computations and processing of that decision – even sensory portions of the brain are learning how to make decisions.  It is not always dopamine, the ‘rewarding’ or ‘motivational’ chemical in the brain that supports this decision-making: other neuromodulators like acetylcholine often play the very same role.

References

Chubykin, A., Roach, E., Bear, M., & Shuler, M. (2013). A Cholinergic Mechanism for Reward Timing within Primary Visual Cortex Neuron, 77 (4), 723-735 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.12.039

Drive (not the movie)

My dad sent this to me.  Learn about motivation and drive through wacky marker drawings!