Where do people look? Where there’s information

where do people look animation

1. BusinessInsider has a great collection of pictures tracking where people actually look when they see an image. (Big takeaway: men love to look at other people’s groins.)

2. Watch the video above: people generally look at the face of the person talking or the object that someone is pointing at. Why? Because that is where the information resides.

information seeking

3. If you ask someone to look for a hidden target, they will look around in a manner that will give them the most information about where the target may be – this lets them exclude as many locations as possible.

4. But we are social animals, and social animals have a tendency to rely on social information – gathering information from other individuals lets you pass on some of the cost of finding it to others. Humans in crowds will look where other humans are looking – what is going on over there? is it something important? why are so many people looking?

5. Of course, humans in crowds are also wary. Other social creatures are potential threats: you want to look someone else’s face to determine whether they are friendly or not. Many animals (like peacocks!) do this – look at where predators might be hiding. Because what information is more important?

6. One way that the nervous system accomplishes this is by internal reward: it is ‘enjoyable’ to look at social faces (and the more relevant, the more rewarding).

7. Famously, dogs will look at where people are looking while cats will not; one has evolved to understand this social information while the other has not. Which says a lot about the psychology of a cat!

References
Najemnik, J., & Geisler, W. (2005). Optimal eye movement strategies in visual search Nature, 434 (7031), 387-391 DOI: 10.1038/nature03390
Gallup AC, Hale JJ, Sumpter DJ, Garnier S, Kacelnik A, Krebs JR, & Couzin ID (2012). Visual attention and the acquisition of information in human crowds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109 (19), 7245-50 PMID: 22529369
Gallup AC, Chong A, Kacelnik A, Krebs JR, & Couzin ID (2014). The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians. Scientific reports, 4 PMID: 25052060
Watson KK, & Platt ML (2012). Social signals in primate orbitofrontal cortex. Current biology : CB, 22 (23), 2268-73 PMID: 23122847
Yorzinski JL, & Platt ML (2014). Selective attention in peacocks during predator detection. Animal cognition, 17 (3), 767-77 PMID: 24253451

Return of the Neuroecologist

I’ve been gone!  First was preparing for the big neuroscience conference SFN, then was SFN itself, then was a nasty cold, followed by catching up on the other work I missed in all those weeks.  While I write up new posts, here are some tasty links for you to peruse:

– I hadn’t realized that cockroaches were social.  Did you know that cockroaches form mixed-family herds, and that given the choice of hiding out individually in shelters or hanging in a group, they will choose to collect in one large group?  Me either.  When raised on their own, the now-sad little critters will develop isolation syndrome.

– Do the same neural circuits process social and nonsocial information?  Probably not.

– Are animals political, and do they choose their leaders?  The Scorpion and the Frog has a typically great post about animal politics, and Slate talks about bees.